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Fire and smoke-proof doors with automatic closers play a key role in fire prevention, as they must prevent the passage of flames and cold and hot fumes by making the environment safe. The rules relating to these special doors define in detail the planning, production, installation and operation phases.
To make their structure fireproof, fire doors play a fundamental role, since they act as real fire barriers. As we all know, buildings are subdivided into more or less large spaces and, in order to have a functional and safe environment against fire, it is essential to integrate the installation of fire doors into the construction project. Depending on the spaces available, it is necessary to carefully choose the type of fireproof doors: for example, to divide corridors that are over 30 meters long, it is necessary to use doors that also function as smoke doors. To make the space light, but without sacrificing safety, there are also fixed or extensible fire doors, which require a special installation.
Fire doors, as defined by the European Committee for Standardization, are considered as watertight smoke doors only if they have a permanent elastic gasket on at least three sides of the frame, and another intermediate gasket on two-leaf doors. These gaskets are essential against heat, and dampen the noise of the door during closure by favouring soundproofing. To prevent the passage of smoke, the fire and smoke door must rest perfectly on the gasket installed on the frame. Doors that do not have the gasket on the side of the floor, however, prevent the passage of fire but do not stop the release of the smoke: therefore, for a perfect insulation, doors must feature guillotine gaskets. A correct functioning is ensured only through some tests that verify whether the door, once closed, is able to prevent the passage of fire and smoke. In particular, with regard to the latter, in case of fire, a functional smoke door must be able to isolate a room and protect people inside to avoid suffocation. Furthermore, the door must withstand flames for 60 or 120 minutes, a duration that varies according to the type of door installed.